University of Minnesota



Global Strategic Planning Meeting
on Teacher Training in Human Rights Education

June 2005 - New York, U.S.A.    |    other working sessions
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Summary of Surveys

1. What are the structures or institutions available in your country...?
2. Which institutions are responsible for ensuring the quality and effectiveness in your country...?
3. Which institutions are responsible for policies in your country/region...?
4. What studies or evaluations have been completed in your country/region...?
5. What effective practices exist in your country/region...?
6. What ways have the institutions in your country/region used to monitor, be accountable and/or measure effectiveness...?
7. What strengths exist in your country/region for including human rights education into...?
8. What weaknesses exist in your country/region...?
9. What opportunities are there in your country/region for human rights education...?
10. What are threats/obstacles exist in your country/region for human rights education...?

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top

1. What are the structures or institutions available in your country to conduct (a) pre-service teacher training and (b) in-service teacher training/professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

Faculties of Education (50 in all) in Universities in 10 provinces and territories (See OISE website for details http://leo.oise.utoronto.ca   

Pedagogical days (about 20 per school year). Professional training provision to have a replacement at the expense of the board (paid leave for the teacher and substitute teacher paid.  Professional development is encouraged. Opportunities to return school for a year is also a provision in the teachers' contract.

Chile

Higher education: University 

Center of teacher training, Ministry of Education;  Universities and Private Institution and Agencies

Costa Rica

Universities (public and private) which have Education Schools

Ministry of Education

Universities (public and private) which have Education Schools

India

 

National Council for Teacher Education and National Council for Educational Research and Training

Indonesia

Teacher Training schools for primary education called Sekolah Pendidikan Guru (SPG), Institutes of Teacher Training, Education (IKIP)  and Open University

Government Institute of Teacher Training, Science Training Centers, English Training Centers and other Centers,  Teachers' Clubs, Principals' Clubs

Japan

 

National Centers for Teachers’Training

Malaysia

Teachers Colleges and Universities (30),

Teacher Education Division of the Ministry of Education, The Training and Staff Development Unit of the MOE, The Aminuddin Baki National Institute of Education Management, The Educational Planning and Research Division, The Curriculum Development Center, and The Schools Division; In-Service Education Coordination Committee

Mongolia

Mongolian State University of Education as the largest institution of teacher training for all educational and science sectors of Mongolia. The University consists of 12 schools and 5 Teacher Training Colleges. Primary school teachers are trained at the teacher training colleges. Three of them locate in Arkhangai, Bayan-Ulgii and Dornod provinces. Also one college runs 4 year bachelor programs for pre-school teaching and methodology.

Secondary school teachers are trained in 12 schools of the University in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, social science and vocational/technical education. The schools have trained specialists in about 40 professions such as secondary school teachers, social workers, librarians and music teachers and so on. Graduating students are awarded a bachelor's degree in education

Pakistan

 

National Institute of Teacher Education

Philippines

Teacher Education Institutions both public (100) and private (367)

National Educators' Academy, Department of Education, Schools, Divisions, and Regional Centers,  English and Science Centers, INNOTECH, Regional Educational Learning Centers

South Africa

In order to teach within a school in South Africa, educators need to complete a four year qualification at an academic institution.   Most of these qualifications would include a component on HRE although in some instances this might be quite cursory.  There are also institutions offering specific courses on HRE within undergraduate and postgraduate programmes.

A number of NGOs are working to support the development of skills, knowledge, values and attitudes regarding the growth and consolidation of a culture of democracy, human rights and peace within the formal school sector. 

Statutory Bodies in South Africa (determined by our Constitution (Ch 9) ) who are responsible in some ways for HR education in society and some of their interventions have been developed specifically for educators working in schools amongst these are the South African Human Rights Commission and the Gender Commission.  Some government departments have also done some work on educating the public around issues of human rights and democracy for example, the Department of Justice in collaboration with the Department of Constitutional Development. 

In addition, the National Education Department has taken the development of democracy and the associated values seriously and has put in place a department (Race and Values Directorate) which has the mandate to work with office and classroom based educators in order to build a more democratic and rights based culture in South African Society.  Initiatives undertaken by this department include a programme focused specifically on HRE in the school curriculum.  It offers educators a collection of resources developed within SA specifically for human rights and democracy education and links a two day workshop programme for teachers to empower them to make use of these materials in the classroom to the South African national curriculum statements which draw on a cross curricula infusion, integration model. 

A programme has also been introduced in collaboration with academic institutions and NGOs doing educator development related to HRE.  Educators attend a programme which runs over the period of two years.  The programme is developed by the service providers offering both an academic and a practical focus.  Students are drawn from within schools and offices of the Department of Education.  They attend lectures and workshops after hours and during school holidays.  A certificate is awarded at the end of the two year part time programme thus offering educators the opportunity to move to a different level within the department.

Education Unions have also played a role in furthering HRE in schools.  Materials have been developed and published in union newspapers, workshops offered and issues related to human rights fore grounded on conference and meeting agendas. 

Although there has been an extensive attempt to network these interventions and programmes many of them are disconnected from each other and so the impact is often localized to the areas in which the programme is being implemented.  

Sri Lanka

 

National Institute of Education, Universities of Peradenya, Colombo, Jaffna

Thailand

36 Teachers' Colleges called Rajhabat under the Department of Teacher Education and 20 campuses of university faculties of education which are under the Ministry of University Affairs;

Department of Teachers Education and other departments within the Ministry of Education, Institute for Development and Promotion of Teachers and Educational Personnel

United Kingdom

Pre-service training is largely provided by universities (for example, UK, Finland, Belgium) or institutes with university status (France). The cost of the training is covered by the State. In England, schools work in partnership with initial teacher training (ITT) providers. The Teacher Training Authority (TTA), a government quango, controls funding for ITT and for in-service training which takes place in universities. It also approves a certain number of schools to undertake ITT. Whether or not the provider is a school or a university, trainees in England spend the larger part of their one-year training based in schools. They are supervised largely by teacher mentors with the support of university tutors. The university awards the qualification.

In England schools have control over their own in-service training budgets and thus a considerable degree of freedom in choosing these agents and deciding the kind of in-service training that is provided to their staff. Colleges, independent companies, Local Education Authorities (LEAs) and many NGOs with an interest in HRE such as Save the Children (www.savethechildren.org.uk), UNICEF (www.unicef.org) and Amnesty International (http://www.amnesty.org.uk/education) provide in-service opportunities.

At a European level, the Council of Europe supports national ministries in running in-service training, providing bursaries for up to 10 international participants to join national events, through the Teachers’Seminar Programme. Since citizenship education is currently a priority area for funding, there are opportunities for HRE in-service education through this mechanism. For example, at a seminar organised by the Maltese Ministry of Education in March 2005, CCHRE played a led role and HRE was centrally on the agenda.

USA

Higher Ed institutions
Colleges of education
Private agencies (eg. Teach for America)

Higher Ed institutions
Colleges of education
Private agencies (eg. Teach for America)

Vietnam

Normal Schools and Professional Teachers' Colleges

National Institute for Educational Strategies and Curriculum Development, Institute of Education, National University in Hanoi, Department for Primary Education, Offices of Education in provinces and districts

 

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top

2. Which institutions are responsible for ensuring the quality and effectiveness in your country in (a) pre-service teacher training and (b) in-service teacher training/professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

University Faculties of Education (Independent Commission set up by government  to study education system in Quebec - Monseigneur Parent Commission - 1960 law came into force setting up the Ministry of Education

Schools and  School Boards  (agreements with  Quebec Human Rights Commission,  broader community of stakeholders  in  medical  profession and law enforcement for specific training)

Chile

Ministry of Education. There is an intention to install a system of accreditation that is related to the  Counsel  of  Higher Education (Consejo Superior de Educación) Autonomous office of the Ministry of Education

Ministry of Education

Costa Rica

Universities (public and private) which have Education Schools

Ministry of Education

Indonesia

Ministry of Education

Ministry of Education

Malaysia

Ministry of Education

Central Curriculum Committee

Mongolia

The central education authority in Mongolia is the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (MOECS). The function of MOECS is defined by law as the promotion and dissemination of education, science and culture. Nearly all publicly financed education is subordinate to or under the supervision of the Ministry. The administrative fields of the Ministry include not only pre-school, primary, secondary, vocational and higher education and educational research, but also cultural and scientific affairs and non-formal education as well.

Philippines

Commission on Higher Education, Teacher Education Council, State Universities and Colleges Teacher Education Association, and Accrediting agencies

Department of Education

South Africa

Within the formal education sector, universities and academic institutions are accredited by the South African Qualifications Authority – their programmes would thus have to comply with standards determined nationally. 

In addition, there are Norms and Standards set for all educators in South Africa.  This document includes standards related to HRE.  Academic institutions would be required to use this document as a guideline for educator development.

A further ‘control’ is that all educators teaching (or applying for government teaching posts) should be registered with the professional educators body called SACE.  This body keeps a register of all teachers working in the country and their qualifications.

Many of the programmes offered are informal and there are thus no formal quality control body working with these institutions. There is however a move in SA towards accreditation of all training institutions via the South African Qualifications Framework which would mean that all programmes offered would eventually be subject to checks and balances if provided by and accredited service provider.

Thailand

Department of Teachers Education within the Ministry of Education; Thai Teachers' Council

Department of Teachers Education within the Ministry of Education

United Kingdom

The quality of the pre-service training is evaluated by relevant bodies (OFSTED - the school inspection agency for England, and equivalent inspectorates for other countries of the UK, Ministry of Education inspectors for France) and also through self-evaluation practices.

The responsibility for the evaluation of in-service training in English schools lies usually with the schools and their staff. The State is indirectly involved by evaluating teachers’competence during formal inspections of schools. Since HRE is not an explicit part of the school curriculum in England, it is not directly inspected, although the ethos of the school is subject to inspection. Citizenship education, which was introduced in 2002 (the citizenship curriculum makes specific reference to HR), is subject to inspection, and as been subject to a recent critical report (http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/publications > Citizenship > 17-Jan-05 and 12-Nov-04).

USA

State Education Departments (different names in different states) Higher Education systems administration NCATE (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education)

INTASC (Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium) Federal Department of Education Specialty Professional Associations (NCSS, NSTA, NCTE, ACEI, NCTM, etc)

Vietnam

Ministry of Education

Ministry of Education

 

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top

3. Which institutions are responsible for policies in your country/region of (a) pre-service teacher training and (b) in-service teacher training/professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

Ministries of Education  in each province 

Ministries of Education  in each province 

Chile

Ministry of Education

Ministry of Education

Costa Rica

Universities (public and private) which have Education Schools

Ministry of Education may make suggestions or sign special agreements with University Education Schools.

Indonesia

Ministry of Education

Ministry of Education

Malaysia

Ministry of Education

Teacher Education Division of the Ministry of Education

Mongolia

the higher-education sector has been transformed from a single, state-run multipurpose university into a decentralized group of specialized universities all having the freedom to appoint their own instructors, set their admission policies and content degrees. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (MOECS) provides guidance and advice for the operation of local public and private educational institutions, as well as financial assistance. It defines policies with regard to education, science and culture and it is responsible for the implementation of these policies

Philippines

The Commission on Higher Education

Department of Education

South Africa

As above

Thailand

Department of Teachers Education within the Ministry of Education

Department of Teachers Education within the Ministry of Education

United Kingdom

In Europe every country enjoys a degree of independence in the design of the educational policies. The Ministry of Education in each member-state of the Council of Europe is responsible for the design and implementation of policies that are relevant to the State’s educational targets. These formulate the National Guidelines which need to be followed by the institutes providing ITT, either for the qualifications they provide to be accredited or for the cost of the studies to be covered.

 

USA

Same as #2, with addition of state legislatures

Same as #2, with addition of state legislatures

Vietnam

   

 

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top

4. What studies or evaluations have been completed in your country/region for (a) pre-service teacher training and (b) in-service teacher training/ professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

  1. Broad report on the education system in Canada "Quality Education for All Young People:Challenges, Trends and Priorities" prepared by the Council of Ministers of Canada for the 47th session on the UNESCO International Conference on Education, Geneva, Sept. 8-1, 2004 (www.cmec.ca/international/unesco/ice47.en.stm)
  2. “The Global Classroom: Appraisal and Perspectives on Education for International Understanding” CANADIAN REPORT
    In response to the International Survey in Preparation for the Forty-Fourth Session of the International Conference on Education Geneva, October 3-8, 1994
    http://www.cmec.ca/international/globaled-en.stm#results
  3. http://www.cmec.ca/international/unesco/pax.en.pdf This report dates back to 1994 and contain info on HRE in Canada. The report mentioned in #2
    Ministries of Education are in the process of major reforms in the systems so we would have to check the websites of each provincial ministry of education to get details.

Chile

An important study was undertaken by Beatriz Avalos :  Profesores para Chile (Teachers for Chile)

Many evaluation have been undertaken in relation with the program Perfeccionamiento Fundamental (PPF) that was implemented by the Ministry of Education in order to prepare in service teachers to apply the new curriculum (1998-2003) . It should be said that the evaluations shows that the Program was unsuccessful  www.umce.cl/~aulint/REVISTA/5.pdf.

Costa Rica

None to my knowledge.

Indonesia

 

Evaluation is a built-in feature of the in-service programme

Malaysia

 

The number and variety of in-service education programmes implemented have made it impracticable to undertake a systematic, comprehensive evaluation of all programmes

Mongolia

In Mongolia not yet conducted any overall study or evaluation in pre-service and in-service teacher training. It just made in within the “Teacher 2005”Project, which is supported by the open Society Institute in the Mongolian State University of Education. The project concentrates in main 3 area of Pre-service teacher education reform: Professional Development of University lecturers; Curriculum Reform and School –University Partnership. It is also the biggest project in teacher training funded and administered by Mongolian Foundation for Open Society (MFOS).

Philippines

Congressional Education Committee Report of 1991

Evaluation is a built-in feature of the in-service programme

South Africa

I do not know of any studies that focus specifically on these issues. We have however had a number of studies conducted on issues related to democratization and rights based practices at school based level which have influenced programming for educator development both at a pre-service and an in-service level. Some of these include:

  • Racism, ‘Racial Integration’ and Desegregation in South African Public Secondary Schools – A Report on a Study by the South African Human Rights Commission
  • Values, Education and Democracy – Report of the working Group on Values in Education
  • Education for Democracy:  Report on Research Conducted with Teachers and Learners in Gauteng – The Teacher Trust and Clacherty and Associates
  • Numerous Journal Articles in publications and newspapers such as The Educators Voice (newspaper of the teacher union SADTU), Education Monitor (journal published by Wits Education and Policy Unit), also publications of the Centre for Education and Policy Development
  • Report of the working group on the National Curriculum Statement and the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Values and Inclusivity

Thailand

Annual evaluation of teacher education programmes

Annual evaluation of teacher education programmes

United Kingdom

There are two kinds of evaluations available: the ones made by each member-state and the ones made by the Council of Europe. An initial evaluation of citizenship education in England based on the inspection of 5 citizenship Teacher Training courses was made by OFSTED and was recently publicized

USA

Most recent study involving relationship of teacher preparation and student achievement was released on April 15:  http://www.schoolredesign.net/srn/server.php?idx=934

A quick search of ERIC shows thousands of studies involving the evaluation of teacher education.  Question needs to be more specific to be answerable.

Vietnam

   

 

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top

5. What effective practices exist in your country/region for (a) pre- service teacher training and (b) in-service teacher training/ professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

The program for teacher training was increased by 1 year  (from a 3-year University program after 2 years of college to a 4-year university program),  more   praticuum  added from 1 year to 2 years   

In hands of school board and individual schools ;  Teachers can suggest they need training in certain subject areas

USA

Depending upon who is asked, the NCATE and/or INTASC standards would serve as models of effective practice.  There are also several books on Best Practices in the classroom and 10000s of articles on same.  Very broad question.

Chile

It should be said that in Chile there are many institution of Higher Education for pre service training of teachers. (62)  The most effective practice  is the one that relates the student from the beginning of his carrier  to the schools and the classroom . Direct relation between theory and practice

Program of  Curriculum actualization . The Ministry of Education in a joint work with the Universities  www.cpeip.cl/index_sub.php?id_contenido=1000& id_portal=200&id_seccion=1184.

Costa Rica

Only the ones that might be conducted by the different Schools of Education, which are not many besides the regular, expository Pedagogy courses.

Typically short actualization courses, offered by the Ministry of Education, or Schools of Education Extension Programs, or specialized private institutes.

Indonesia

Continuing curricular reform and adoption of national development plans

Training of mobile training team called Tim Penatar Keliling (TPK); use of radio programmes

Malaysia

Continuing curricular reform and adoption of national development plans

Cascade Strategy, Distance Learning, Mobile in-service education unit

Mongolia

The Mongolian State University of Education (MSUE) is currently revising its Pre-Service Teacher Education program under the project “Teacher 2005”.  Teacher 2005 is project aims at systemic reform of Mongolian pre-service teacher education

 

Philippines

Identification of centers of excellence in pre-service education

Cascade Strategy, Distance Learning, Mobile in-service education unit

South Africa

South Africa has adopted a holistic approach to issues related to HRE in education.  Whilst our Constitution promises certain rights and established a framework within which these rights should be realized – education policy has been aligned with the Constitution and it is thus regarded as the responsibility of all educators to be educators for human rights.  This notion is developed through a range of education policy from the South African Schools Act through to the Revised National Curriculum Statements.  Many organizations, academic institutions and the National Education Department have programmes in place to address the need for educator development in this area.  However, there are still some rather daunting challenges faced in South Africa relate which relate to the implementation of these policies within the school environment.  Many educators do not see the need for them or are threatened by a rights based approach believing that it disempowers them and breaks down the culture of learning and teaching in schools.  In addition previously disadvantaged schools and educators struggle to overcome basic issues related to providing quality education for all (enough classrooms, teacher pupil ratios, poverty and adequate resources) and so do not necessarily even get to engage with the broader issues of what is in the curriculum or using human rights aligned methodologies.  Also see question 1 a) and b). 

Sri Lanka

 

100 Teacher Centers for each zone

Thailand

Continuing curricular reform and adoption of national development plans

Cascade Strategy, Distance Learning, Mobile in-service education unit

United Kingdom

There is a variety of practices, especially in the in-service teaching training, reported from different European countries. Many of these practices are applied in the Eastern European countries which are in a period of political change. 

  • Promotion of Human Rights Education through extracurricular arts in Romania (Tibbitts, 1997).
  • The work of the Development and Inter-Cultural Education (DICE) in the Republic of Ireland (http://www.cice.ie/dice.htm).
  • The UNESCO Project D@dalos for all European countries
    (http://www.dadalos.org/int).

These programmes are only indicative of a variety of initiatives that have been undertaken recently in Europe in relation to Human Rights Education. It appears that NGOs and other agencies cover in some extent the need for HRE in teacher training by providing in-service sessions. However, there is a consistency in the reports in acknowledging the lack of relevant ITT training in this field. ITT training and the degree to which it incorporates HRE is dependent in National guidelines published by the Ministry of Education of each country.

Vietnam

Continuing curricular reform and adoption of national development plans

 

 

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top

6. What ways have the institutions in your country/region used to monitor, be accountable and/or measure effectiveness of (a) pre-service teacher training and (b) in-service teacher training/professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

Teachers are evaluated by supervising teachers (class you take over when you do your student teaching-  practicuum )

b) Once in service, the school principal evaluates  teachers' performance through classroom observation. However, principals have less and less time given the  extra administrative workload

Chile

In the meantime none

By law teachers that are working in the public schools ( municipalities schools ) should be evaluated. This is a process that have just started in 2003. Teachers Union have been very reluctant to this evaluation

Costa Rica

None. In fact, the quality of teacher training (whether pre-service or in-service) is currently being much criticized.

Indonesia

 

Evaluation is a built-in feature of the in-service programme

Malaysia

   

Mongolia

none

 

Philippines

Performance in the licensure examination for teachers, evaluation by accrediting agencies

Evaluation is a built-in feature of the in-service programme

South Africa

Nothing has been done to my knowledge which is specific to HRE in schools.  However there are registered Unit Standards on the Qualifications Framework which relate to HRE, these standards will be included in educator development programmes within formal institutions who are accredited providers and so the idea is that a particular standard is maintained.  (this is of course not necessarily so)

Within the informal sector there are no real checks and balances with regard to the quality of training.  However with one of the main stakeholders in the arena of in-service educator development there probably is some measure which is not formally or clearly articulated.

Thailand

 

Evaluation is a built-in feature of the in-service programme

United Kingdom

The monitoring and evaluation of ITT programmes takes place through inspections of the ITT providers (universities and certain schools). There are specific guidelines about the frequency and content of these inspections. For OFSTED (England), these guidelines indicate the need for at least 1 inspection for every 5 years for ITT programmes providing good quality of training (more often for providers judged to be providing non-satisfactory level of training).

USA

Accreditation process, involving self-study and assessment to meet national standards such as NCATE, INTASC, and/or State Education reviews on a regular basis (generally every 5-10 years)

Vietnam

 

Evaluation is a built-in feature of the in-service programme

 

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top

7. What strengths exist in your country/region for including human rights education into (a) pre-service teacher training and (b) in- service teacher training/ professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

a) Multiculturalism  course is part of the teacher training program  in Montreal -  e.g.,  McGill  University , in Toronto OISE -) other urban Centers?  b) In Quebec the curriculum reform has included human rights related competencies in the new program. The Education Act for Quebec included an article under Teacher Obligations which states:  22.3  A teacher shall take the appropriate means to foster respect for human rights in his students

Provincial Human Rights commissions have a mandate to provide HRE in schools, but it has to be at the request of the schools. In Quebec, again, content of the English language arts program is let to the discretion of the School Boards and individual schools. Ministry sets general objectives. Teachers have used this program to talk about racial discrimination and other rights related issues.

Chile

Human rights education is included in the curriculum as a cross curriculum content and objective . However not many institutions have included human rights education as part of the pre service curriculum

It should be pointed out that there aren’t many opportunities for in service teachers to participate in workshops  in HRE . However teachers that have participated in same of the workshops offered by Universities (Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano; Universidad Central) and same NGOs (PIIE, Church Fundación Ideas etc) are very committed and enthusiastic to introduce y in their classes HRE  

Costa Rica

In the country there is a long tradition of human rights defense and promotion; a strong sense of its importance in children’s education, and the topic is already part of elementary and high school curricula.

HRE is not usually part of pre-service teacher training, but if there i a movement to raise awareness of its importance in Schools of Education, there should be no strong opposition to include it somehow in the training curriculum.

In-service teachers have often received short training courses or workshops on the subject offered by the Ministry of Education or the Ombudsman Office. The Inter-American Institute of Human Rights has taught several of them during the past decade.

Indonesia

   

Malaysia

   

Mongolia

  • Established National Human Rights Commission and adapted the its Law in 2000
    Also, Mongolian Parliament ratified National Human Rights Action Program in 2003. However, the Action Program calls its implication as National Action Program on Human Rights Education, but it does not implement up to date.
  • Mongolia has a highly literate population.
  • For all teachers, the curriculum is changing from a highly standardized one to a more flexible locally relevant one. The Education Law of 1991 ruled that 25 per cent of the curriculum should be left free for local shaping though schools and teachers.
  • Female participation in education has been high, particularly at post-secondary levels.

    Also some effective practices are also reported:

  • Increasing will and capacity to implement human rights education in national level
  • A wide-ranging curriculum has been introduced into the school system within new educational standard.
  • NGOs also provide legal consultation services and help protect the rights of children and women against violence in the family and other human rights violations.
  • Enthusiastic support from teachers and students
  • Policy and programs to enable disabled children to receive equal access to schooling.

Philippines

HRE is constitutionally mandated, there is an executive order, and a department order, and included in the licensure examination for teachers

HRE is constitutionally mandated, there is an executive order, and a department order, and included in the licensure examination for teachers

South Africa

This question is already answered in part by responses to other questions in this report – however in a nutshell, the focus on Human Rights in South African legislation carried through into school related Legislation and Policy.  The emphasis placed on HRE by the National Education Department, Statutory bodies and civil society organizations working in the sector.  South Africa also has a good education infrastructure where effective educator development programmes are offered by academic institutions.  There is also a loose network of organizations who meet to discuss and share progress with regard to HRE practices.  The course being delivered part time on behalf of the Department of Education by NGOs and academic institutions has a monitoring body who call regular meetings with all service providers to consider strengths and weaknesses of the programme. 

Thailand

   

United Kingdom

Despite the scarcity of the incorporation of human rights education in ITT and in service training, the European policy documents (of both the Council of Europe and the European commission) are a distinct strength, providing NGOs and other actors with a tool which can be used to put pressure on governments.

The policies related to the promotion of a common European identity raise a variety of HR issues, concerning tolerance, community and collaboration.

Innovative educational policies promoted by and applied from some countries (i.e. Finland and Sweden for the promotion of active learning) promote an ethos conducive to HRE (Niemi, 2002).

The implementation of different forms of EDC in Europe are related to broadly humanistic ideals. There is a clear tendency for contemporary forms of citizenship education to be related to moral development, something that in some countries  challenges long-established views that associate schooling with intellectual/academic training, reserving adolescents’moral development as the responsibility of the family (Pepin, 2000).

The on-going reform of the educational systems in Central and Eastern Europe is closely related to human rights education and the need to strengthen democracy. Support is given to ITT and teachers’ in-service development by a range of bodies including the Council of Europe. In some cases, these countries seem to be open to innovative policies, especially in ITT training (i.e. Russia) while the incorporation in the curriculum of modules such as ‘Ethics’ or ‘Religious Studies’(Slovakia) has created new paths for the ITT and increased opportunities for Human Rights Education (Tibbitts, 1997).

The issue of protection of equal opportunities and the promotion of good race relations in the ITT training is of particular importance, especially for countries with a long-established multicultural population, such as Germany and the UK.

For EU member-states European anti-discrimination legislation relating to race, ethnicity, gender, disability, sexuality and age has required the introduction or strengthening of national legislation. This creates a positive climate and a legal framework in which HRE is consistent in its goals with legislative standards.   

USA

   

Vietnam

   

 

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top

8. What weaknesses exist in your country/region for (a) pre-service teacher training and (b) in-service teacher training/ professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

a)  No national policy - every province can set its own standards. little or no  human rights training  for teachers  b) not enough time -  e.g.,  only one person goes on training for  human rights - no time to share learning and implement training -  The principal  is the team leader and he/she makes decisions  about training.  

Chile

There is not a clear public policy that HRE should be part of the training of the teachers. Not much fund have been put to produce materials on HRE.

Costa Rica

Low qualifications of teacher trainers; weak curricula; short duration of  the study programs to become a teacher.

Indonesia

   

Malaysia

   

Mongolia

A number of factors have contributed to the on-going problems of the education system, especially teacher training in Mongolia. The economic difficulties have led to a decline in public funding for education from around 11.0 per cent to 5.0 per cent of GDP. Currently, teachers’professional development has been stopped because of in-service teacher training is high costs; There are some weaknesses for teacher training system.

  • The quality of instruction is low due to inadequate teacher training and low salaries.
  • Inadequate attention is paid to imparting the knowledge that would help students better protect their human rights and promote tolerance.
  • Lack of systematic support from government and local administration 
  • Lack of adequate telecommunication infrastructure;
  • Poor water supply and unhygienic conditions are commonplace.
  • Limited involvement of parents or trustees in either school board management schemes or parent/teacher associations.
  • There is no systematic monitoring and evaluation works from the government and other actors in teacher training.

Philippines

Teacher educators do not have formal training; the view that the teaching of Philippine Constitution is similar to HRE

HRE is equated with activism and communism, thus not normally considered a relevant topic for in-service unless integrated in more interesting topics in different subject areas; the lack of incentive for human rights educators

South Africa

Lack of coordination and common vision/understanding between service providers (sometimes competition between service providers). 

Thailand

   

United Kingdom

Lack of relevant legislation and national educational policies clearly stating the need for incorporation of HRE in ITT. Indicative of this is the fact that the relevant guidelines set about 50 different standards to describe the successful completion of the ITT, from which not more than 5 seem to be related to HRE. Namely, among the professional values of the teacher should be the consideration for pupils, the promotion of positive values, the ability to work collaboratively and to meet the pupils’needs and a commitment to the provision of equal opportunities.

  • TT focused on the promotion of teacher’s academic competence; TT which does not promote teachers’initiatives and creative thinking.

USA

No national policy, state decisions, leading to 50+ separate systems with differing sets of standards and enforcement

Uniformity may not be the goal, but universality is also difficult/impossible

Teacher shortages in selected content and/or localities leads to lowering of standards for certification or untrained/non-certified teachers in classrooms.

Vietnam

   

 

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top

9. What opportunities are there in your country/region for human rights education in (a) pre-service teacher training and (b) in-service teacher training/ professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

a) Universities  are open however resources are lacking 

b) Personal contacts with the schools, governing boards parents/community rep representatives 

Chile

As  it has been said, HRE is in the official curriculum as a cross content, therefore the institutions have all the opportunities to introduce it in pre and in service training 

Costa Rica

As said before, the country  has a long tradition of promoting human rights, a strong sense of its importance in children’s education, and the  topic is already part of elementary and high school official curricula. Teacher training is the “missing link” in an otherwise positive scenario for HRE.

Indonesia

   

Malaysia

   

Mongolia

Currently, Mongolian State University of Education put forward a project proposal to UNICEF Representative Office in Mongolia to establish Human Rights Education Center at the University. This HRE Center will implement below mentioned goals to pre-service and in-service teacher training.

  • Conduct needs assessments and convert the findings to instructional content on HRE
  • Prepare content and materials to support technology-based instruction;
  • Conduct trainings and workshops to teachers and trainers
  • Upgrading teacher skills and/or adapting them to a changing educational and social environment.
  • Produce, reproduce and distribute curriculum and learning materials to schools, teachers and students.

Therefore, the teacher training institution would also cover training of trainers of human rights education.

Use of distance learning and technology:

Most educational authorities and experts believe that there is sufficient technology available to teach any subject at a distance. Therefore, most of teacher training programs of in-service would be implement distance learning. 

Philippines

Having been included in the licensure examination for teachers creates a demand for HRE

The role that Philippine Normal University can play as center of excellence in teacher education in the promotion of HRE

South Africa

Already addressed in the responses to other questions.

Thailand

   

United Kingdom

EU priorities –EDC and relevant funding.

  • Citizenship modules within initial teacher education.
  • Exchange of ideas and practices as the EU member-states and Council of Europe member-states work. Use of educational experience of countries with innovative practices (i.e. Finland, Sweden)

USA

Because of the lack of specified curriculum in teacher education programs, it would be possible to add whatever subject area/theme/content the program feels appropriate.  Social justice is an increasingly more "popular" topic within education programs currently- human rights could/should easily fall within the scope of such a theme.

Human rights can be implied as a mandate within the content standards for social studies, science, and English.  Making this mandate more specific and accessible should not be difficult.

Vietnam

   

 

Question 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | top
10.  What are threats/obstacles exist in your country/region for human rights education in (a) pre-service teacher training and (b) in-service teacher training/professional development?

Countries

Pre-Service

In-Service

Canada

a) Lack of knowledge, hesitance to change , conservative institutions

b) Demotivated workforce , average age 50 , wanting to retire but not retiring

Chile

Professors at the University are not well prepared in HRE . In addition to it, the curriculum focus is main preoccupation in language, science and mathematic. HRE is a "second hand curriculum knowledge"

Costa Rica

The main obstacle in my opinion is the general lack of awareness of the importance of training future teachers in HRE. School curricula and text-books which include HRE contents are necessary, but no sufficient conditions to fully incorporate HRE in the educational system. Furthermore, in-service teacher training provided (briefly and occasionally) by the Ministry of Education is not enough. The training effort should be seriously made during the regular formation process of new teachers, which in Costa Rica is conducted by university Schools of Education –both public and private.

Indonesia

   

Malaysia

   

Mongolia

  • Lack of previous experience and trained staff which are able to use HRE methodology and content.
  • Books and instructional materials on HRE written in Mongolian are lacking. It is therefore difficult for teachers to achieve their goals base on a complex subject.
  • There are a limited number of hours available for human rights education within the subject of Social studies and Law
  • Curriculum and teaching methods are often not relevant to the life-skill and livelihood challenges facing students.
  • The HRE curriculum does not conform to the realities and life-skill and livelihood needs of different communities, because most of them translated from other language and culture.

Philippines

The declining resources available for HRE

The declining resources available for HRE, HRE is equated with activism and communism, thus not normally considered a relevant topic for in-service

South Africa

There is a lack of commitment and common understanding of what HRE is and why it is important within the whole school environment.  As mentioned earlier many educators have a negative perception of human rights and perceive it as a threat to themselves this often results in polarized relationships between learners and educators in the classroom (‘us’ and ‘them’). 

Although putting HRE into the school curriculum in such a focused and holistic way is a victory for organizations in this country who lobbied for it – there is also the potential that this undermine HRE and that it ends up diluted without a specific home or with anybody who is specifically responsible for its implementation.  (all becomes a bit fuzzy)

Despite fore grounding issues of HRE in the curriculum and within other education policy there other pressing issues related to quality education in South Africa that need to be addressed – many educators (particularly in-service) are suffering from workshop-fatigue and are so overwhelmed by all the changes they have to deal with that HRE is just another on and probably not the most pressing.

Material challenges facing schools with regard to resources, adequate buildings, poverty, HIV and AIDS and so on are not always seen as part of a rights based approach to education and thus not regarded as an important aspect of HRE and thus educator development.  Many educators believe that in the face of the inequalities and challenges they still face, teaching about Human Rights is a luxury for which they have little time.

Thailand

   

United Kingdom

  • Educational priorities –Schooling and academic competence.

    The emphasis within schooling on academic training leaves little space for the incorporation of human rights education in the TT. Teacher’s academic competence becomes the focus of the training and leads to teaching unbalanced skills. Moreover, it contributes to a vicious cycle of neglect for human rights education, since it promotes and generates a teaching culture which affects and is affected by the schools’ethos which in turns affects the priorities of the in-service training.

  • Lack of support and initiative from governments to take responsibility for human rights education. This is inevitably related to funding and the formulation of relevant policies.
  • Restricted involvement of NGOs in in-service training.
  • National educational systems have for too long been promoted national ideals and nationalistic views to be easily adjusted to the need of promotion of ideas about European community, tolerance etc. In some cases, a resistance to humanistic ideals can be developed, if seen in the context of the promotion of the EU initiatives.

USA

Adding anything to a system that is already perceived to be overloaded is difficult. The number of different interest groups/bureaucracies/agencies that would be involved in outrageous.

Vietnam

   


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